Air Balancing and Testing

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One of the jobs of your building’s HVAC system is ensuring that air flows efficiently and consistently. When your HVAC operates efficiently, it can lead to proper “air balance.” But what, exactly, is air balance, why is it so important, and how is it achieved? Let’s take a look.

What is Air Balance?

Air balance is a process in which the air pressure, quality, and temperature in a building are balanced to maintain optimal indoor air quality. It’s used to ensure that there is adequate ventilation and that the air is free from pollutants.

The process of air balancing involves testing, adjusting, and balancing the levels of air intake, exhaust, and recirculation to create a comfortable environment that meets the needs of the occupants. Air balancing is usually done by an experienced HVAC technician, such as CroppMetcalfe.

Why Indoor Air Quality is Important

Indoor air quality, often abbreviated as IAQ, refers to the condition of the air within enclosed spaces, such as homes, workplaces, and public buildings. The quality of the air we breathe indoors directly impacts our health, comfort, and overall productivity.

Potential Health Issues Caused by Poor Indoor Air Quality

Poor indoor air quality can trigger existing health issues or create new ones:

  • Asthma: Poor air quality exacerbates respiratory illnesses and can trigger asthma attacks
  • Allergies: Airborne allergens like pollen and mold thrive in low-quality indoor environments.
  • Eyes, nose, and throat irritation: Irritants like dust and pollutants irritate mucous membranes.
  • Headaches, dizziness, and fatigue: Inhalation of harmful substances leads to neurological symptoms.
  • Heart disease: Airborne toxins strain the cardiovascular system, potentially contributing to heart disease development or worsening existing heart conditions.
  • Cancer: Prolonged exposure to carcinogenic agents in indoor air increases the risk of developing certain types of cancer.

Indoor Pollutants vs. Outdoor Air Pollutants

Indoor air pollution is often more concentrated than outdoor air pollution, making it more dangerous to breathe. Americans, on average, spend approximately 90 percent of their time indoors. Due to insufficient mechanical ventilation, and the increasing use of synthetic building materials, furnishings, personal care products, pesticides, and household cleaners, some indoor pollutants have increased in recent decades. This raises the need for proper indoor air balance.

Common Issues With Air Quality

When testing for air quality, a range of common issues come up. This is why we recommend professional air balancing for commercial buildings.

Poor Ventilation

When a space lacks proper airflow, it allows pollutants to accumulate, leading to a decline in air quality. This can be especially problematic in environments without windows, with limited natural air exchanged.

Inadequate ventilation often arises from a combination of factors, including poorly designed or maintained HVAC systems, sealed windows, and infrequent air circulation. Without a steady influx of fresh outdoor air, contaminants can reach unhealthy levels.

Allergen & Pollutant Build-Up

One of the challenges of indoor air quality is the accumulation of allergens and pollutants. Common culprits are allergens, such as dust mites, pet dander, and pollen. When these microscopic particles linger in the air or settle on surfaces, they can trigger allergic reactions in sensitive individuals. 

Excessive Moisture

Excessive moisture arises when there's an overabundance of humidity in enclosed spaces. It creates an environment ripe for mold and mildew growth. These release spores into the air, which can be inhaled and pose health risks, particularly for those with respiratory sensitivities. Additionally, excess moisture can damage building materials and lead to structural issues.

High humidity levels create an environment conducive to dust mites and other pests, which thrive in damp conditions. This can exacerbate allergic reactions and respiratory problems in susceptible individuals.

Inadequate Temperature Control

When temperatures are too high or too low, it can lead to discomfort and health issues. Extreme heat can result in heat-related illnesses like heat exhaustion or heatstroke, while extreme cold can contribute to conditions like hypothermia. Moreover, fluctuating temperatures can exacerbate respiratory problems, making breathing difficult for individuals.

Inadequate temperature control also affects indoor humidity levels. High temperatures combined with high humidity can create a muggy and uncomfortable environment, while low temperatures can make the air feel dry and irritating to the respiratory system.

Commercial Air Balancing

Commercial air balancing involves three primary steps to ensure the HVAC system performs at its peak.


The process of commercial air balancing begins with an assessment of your HVAC's capacity in relation to your specific heating and cooling requirements. Technicians then examine airflow and air pressure in each room to pinpoint areas for adjustments.

Various precision tools are used to test the air quality and balance. These instruments provide accurate measurements, ensuring a comprehensive understanding of the system's performance so the technician can assess what needs to be done.


Adjustments are tailored to align the system's performance with the specific heating and cooling needs of the area. This ensures that the airflow is distributed efficiently and consistently throughout the space.

In some cases, additional maintenance may be recommended. This is because airflow issues can sometimes be attributed to underlying factors like leaks, damage, accumulation of debris, or aging components within the system.


The final step of the process ensures air flows precisely as needed within a commercial space, aligning with the mechanical plans crafted by engineers. These mechanical plans are blueprints detailing equipment specifications, ductwork layouts, and the specified "required airflows.” This data serves as a reference for the air balancer.

Armed with this information, the air balance technician meticulously adjusts the airflow at each point to match the prescribed amounts indicated in the mechanical plans. This step eliminates discrepancies, evenly distributing airy and avoiding overworked or underutilized areas. It optimizes comfort, energy efficiency, and air quality and can extend the lifespan of HVAC equipment.

Call CroppMetcalfe for Professional Air Balancing

CroppMetcalfe offers quality, professional service for all your commercial air balancing needs. Our 5-Star technicians are ready and able to test, assess, and re-balance the air in your commercial building so everyone can breathe easily.

Call us today at 888-251-9465 or fill out our convenient online form to learn more about how CroppMetcalfe can service all your commercial needs!